There is a growing interest among many hospitals—community and academic alike—to migrate toward alternative service delivery models referred to as “service lines.” The concept with clinical service lines is to shift the hospital’s care delivery model from the traditional specialty silos to a more horizontal organizational structure that is focused on patient-centric care delivery within a particular clinical affinity area. Cardiovascular and musculoskeletal service lines are common examples. The idea is to organize all related services under one broad program umbrella, and work to manage those services better and more efficiently. When well designed and implemented, service lines can be helpful to patients in their accessing one-stop care in a way that improves coordination and outcomes, and results in a measurably better patient experience. Service lines also hold the promise of bringing together related specialists and providing them opportunity for collaboration and innovation that would not have been possible while practicing in separate subspecialty departments or offices. When cardiologists and cardiac surgeons and cardiac anesthesiologists all work for a hospital’s cardiovascular service line and thus collaborate freely and with focused purpose, for instance, remarkable innovations in patient care are possible.